Republic of Angani (Applicant) vs. Federal State of Bolvanger (Respondent)
Case Concerning The Protection Of Dark And Quiet Skies And The Freedom Of Scientific Investigation


BOLVANGER, a highly developed spacefaring nation, has decided to issue a licence to a private company, KRONOS Limited, to launch the TandaNet satellite constellation, intended to provide global broadband services, especially to remote and conflict zones. Shortly after the first generation TandaNet commenced launch in 2026, astronomers and scientists raised concerns regarding the brightness emitted by TandaNet satellites. In addition, a first-generation TandaNet satellite, HJR-3, became uncontrollable.

Concurrently, the Gallivespian Space Organisation (“GSO”) was established with 31 Member States, including ANGANI, and developed, as its first project, a space-based telescope KirR, aiming to revolutionize astronomical investigations. Despite delays and internal pressures, KirR launched at the end of 2030 from ANGANI, but collided with HJR-3, rendering KirR inoperative and creating widespread debris that reduced the lifespan of the remaining TandaNet satellites.

Later that same year, BOLVANGER announced the construction of the TAO telescope for advanced celestial imaging, with an emphasis on detecting near-Earth asteroids. The international scientific community lauded the endeavour. GSO announced its second project - the NYX3 satellite constellation. The first batch of NYX3 satellites were launched from ANGANI. When the TAO telescope began operations later that year, it encountered significant distortions in its imaging due to the interference of satellite constellations, particularly from the NYX3 satellites. The non- reflective coating on these satellites inadvertently emitted light on wavelengths the TAO was calibrated to detect, thereby compromising its function.

In 2032, unable to find a resolution to by diplomatic consultations, ANGANI and BOLVANGER have agreed to present the case to the International Court of Justice for adjudication.